13 Study the following pictures carefully and write an essay in which you should:

Speaking up is hard to do. I understood the true meaning of this phrase exactly one month ago, when my wife and I became new parents. It was an amazing moment. It was exhilarating and elating, but it was also scary and terrifying. And it got particularly terrifying when we got home from the hospital, and we were unsure whether our little baby boy was getting enough nutrients from breastfeeding. And we wanted to call our pediatrician, but we also didn't want to make a bad first impression or come across as a crazy, neurotic parent. So we worried. And we waited. When we got to the doctor's office the next day, she immediately gave him formula because he was pretty dehydrated. Our son is fine now, and our doctor has reassured us we can always contact her. But in that moment, I should've spoken up, but I didn't.


  1. describe the picture;

But sometimes we speak up when we shouldn't, and I learned that over 10 years ago when I let my twin brother down. My twin brother is a documentary filmmaker, and for one of his first films, he got an offer from a distribution company. He was excited, and he was inclined to accept the offer. But as a negotiations researcher, I insisted he make a counteroffer, and I helped him craft the perfect one. And it was perfect -- it was perfectly insulting. The company was so offended, they literally withdrew the offer and my brother was left with nothing.


  2. interpret the meaning of the picture;

And I've asked people all over the world about this dilemma of speaking up: when they can assert themselves, when they can push their interests, when they can express an opinion, when they can make an ambitious ask.


  3. make your comment.

And the range of stories are varied and diverse, but they also make up a universal tapestry. Can I correct my boss when they make a mistake? Can I confront my coworker who keeps stepping on my toes? Can I challenge my friend's insensitive joke? Can I tell the person I love the most my deepest insecurities?


  You should write 160~200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

And through these experiences, I've come to recognize that each of us have something called a range of acceptable behavior. Now, sometimes we're too strong; we push ourselves too much. That's what happened with my brother. Even making an offer was outside his range of acceptable behavior. But sometimes we're too weak. That's what happened with my wife and I. And this range of acceptable behaviors -- when we stay within our range, we're rewarded. When we step outside that range, we get punished in a variety of ways. We get dismissed or demeaned or even ostracized. Or we lose that raise or that promotion or that deal.

  其次,除了以上三项常考功能模板,我们还将在本部分的最后列出两个具有对比论证功能的模板。虽然自从1997 年以来的历年短文题目中没有出现要求进行对比论证的话题,但是考生仍然应该有所准备。

  文章可以分四段来写:第一段描述图画,第二段解释产生该现象的原因,第三段讲应对问题的策略,最后一段作总结。In the picture, a crab is most surprised when looking at a man walking forward.

Now, the first thing we need to know is: What is my range? But the key thing is, our range isn't fixed; it's actually pretty dynamic. It expands and it narrows based on the context. And there's one thing that determines that range more than anything else, and that's your power. Your power determines your range. What is power? Power comes in lots of forms. In negotiations, it comes in the form of alternatives. So my brother had no alternatives; he lacked power. The company had lots of alternatives; they had power. Sometimes it's being new to a country, like an immigrant, or new to an organization or new to an experience, like my wife and I as new parents. Sometimes it's at work, where someone's the boss and someone's the subordinate. Sometimes it's in relationships, where one person's more invested than the other person.


  It is not quite a challenging task for us to explain this phenomenon. To begin with, it is natural for different individuals to adopt different angles to look at the world and employ different methods to cope with problems, so we will find others opinions and behaviors hard to understand if we always look from our own perspective. Furthermore, to look down upon others or gossip about others private affairs can be largely attributed to selfconceit. When we judge ourselves, we think of what we can do; but when we judge others, we think of what they have done. So it is likely for us to overestimate our own ability, and feel the impulse to complain and condemn in the name of truth and justice.

And the key thing is that when we have lots of power, our range is very wide. We have a lot of leeway in how to behave. But when we lack power, our range narrows. We have very little leeway. The problem is that when our range narrows, that produces something called the low-power double bind. The low-power double bind happens when, if we don't speak up, we go unnoticed, but if we do speak up, we get punished.


  To solve this problem, the first step is to learn to control our own temper when facing again such “annoying” ideas or behaviors. When we calm down and analyze in depth what has happened, we are more likely to draw the reasonable conclusion. The next suggestion is to try to be strict with ourselves and tolerant of others at the same time—only in this way will it be possible for us to come to terms with the world. Another important point is that we should constantly develop and improve ourselves—when we endeavor to assimilate knowledge and accumulate experience, we will find it easier to have a calm mind and look at the world from a more balanced perspective.

Now, many of you have heard the phrase the "double bind" and connected it with one thing, and that's gender. The gender double bind is women who don't speak up go unnoticed, and women who do speak up get punished. And the key thing is that women have the same need as men to speak up, but they have barriers to doing so. But what my research has shown over the last two decades is that what looks like a gender difference is not really a gender double bind, it's a really a low-power double bind. And what looks like a gender difference are really often just power differences in disguise. Oftentimes we see a difference between a man and a woman or men and women, and think, "Biological cause. There's something fundamentally different about the sexes." But in study after study, I've found that a better explanation for many sex differences is really power. And so it's the low-power double bind. And the low-power double bind means that we have a narrow range, and we lack power. We have a narrow range, and our double bind is very large.


  How can a crab refrain from laughing at a man walking forward when it has run amuck for so many years? We are intelligent beings who should make constant progress by learning, reflection and communication. When we get to the top of the academic, corporate, or social ladder, it is more important for us to stand higher and higher and look down on the earthly affairs without easily expressing our opinions.第一段是对图画的描述,非常简洁。第二段共六句话,阐释现象,在统领句后分两点来说。第一点说不同的人在看待世界和解决问题时采用不同的角度和方法是相当自然的,所以当我们从自己的角度出发时就会发现别人的观点和行为难以理解。第二点说藐视别人和闲聊别人的私事多是由于自负。当我们评价自己时,想的是我们能做成什么;而评价别人时,想的是他们已经做了什么。这样做我们就容易高估自己的能力,而产生了以真理与正义之名来抱怨与责备的冲动。

So we need to find ways to expand our range. And over the last couple decades, my colleagues and I have found two things really matter. The first: you seem powerful in your own eyes. The second: you seem powerful in the eyes of others. When I feel powerful, I feel confident, not fearful; I expand my own range. When other people see me as powerful, they grant me a wider range. So we need tools to expand our range of acceptable behavior. And I'm going to give you a set of tools today. Speaking up is risky, but these tools will lower your risk of speaking up.



The first tool I'm going to give you got discovered in negotiations in an important finding. On average, women make less ambitions offers and get worse outcomes than men at the bargaining table. But Hannah Riley Bowles and Emily Amanatullah have discovered there's one situation where women get the same outcomes as men and are just as ambitious. That's when they advocate for others. When they advocate for others, they discover their own range and expand it in their own mind. They become more assertive. This is sometimes called "the mama bear effect." Like a mama bear defending her cubs, when we advocate for others, we can discover our own voice.

  The picture . What is strikingly noticeable is , but it can be easily explained by shown in the picture。

  最后一段是结语——如果前面写得中规中矩,这一段可以使用一些特殊的手段来对文章的档次做大幅的提升。该段共分三句。第一句是一个反问句,呼应文章的第一段:螃蟹横行霸道多年,又怎么会不嘲笑直着走的人呢?该句的作用在于经过讨论之后,让读者产生巨大的共鸣——这一问题已非常清楚了。第二句说我们人是有智慧的,应当通过学习、思考和交流不断取得进步。最后一句说当我们攀上学习、公司和社会阶梯之巅时,我们应站得更高,俯看世事,而不轻下结论。这句话是对第三段第三点的直接呼应。后两句话中均有平行结构的用法,请用心体会。 越是看似简单的道理,大家越是应该谈深谈透。

But sometimes, we have to advocate for ourselves. How do we do that? One of the most important tools we have to advocate for ourselves is something called perspective-taking. And perspective-taking is really simple: it's simply looking at the world through the eyes of another person. It's one of the most important tools we have to expand our range. When I take your perspective, and I think about what you really want, you're more likely to give me what I really want.

  The discern able unhealthiness discloses a prevalent phenomenon that has long existed in the China’s . One the one hand, . On the other hand, . As a result, the integration of poor living conditions and work pressure leads naturally to their poor health and short life-span, just as the picture tells us。


But here's the problem: perspective-taking is hard to do. So let's do a little experiment. I want you all to hold your hand just like this: your finger -- put it up. And I want you to draw a capital letter E on your forehead as quickly as possible. OK, it turns out that we can draw this E in one of two ways, and this was originally designed as a test of perspective-taking. I'm going to show you two pictures of someone with an E on their forehead -- my former student, Erika Hall. And you can see over here, that's the correct E. I drew the E so it looks like an E to another person. That's the perspective-taking E because it looks like an E from someone else's vantage point. But this E over here is the self-focused E. We often get self-focused. And we particularly get self-focused in a crisis.

  The situation is rather depressing because , and it is largely owing to . To solve the problem, I think there should be a thriving social trend , and those who should be rewarded with good living and working conditions。

I want to tell you about a particular crisis. A man walks into a bank in Watsonville, California. And he says, "Give me $2,000, or I'm blowing the whole bank up with a bomb." Now, the bank manager didn't give him the money. She took a step back. She took his perspective, and she noticed something really important. He asked for a specific amount of money.


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So she said, "Why did you ask for $2,000?"

  We can see from the picture that , but 。


And he said, "My friend is going to be evicted unless I get him $2,000 immediately."

  If , he would surely express . There are three reasons to explain why it happens to . Firstly, , which resulted from . Secondly, though , . Consequently, . Thirdly, 。

And she said, "Oh! You don't want to rob the bank -- you want to take out a loan."

  I maintain that effective measures should be taken to put an end to this phenomenon. Firstly, we need to endeavor to advocate . Secondly, strict regulations should be enacted and enforced to create a harmonious and orderly society. Only through the combined efforts can we eliminate this “tumor” forcefully and completely。



"Why don't you come back to my office, and we can have you fill out the paperwork."

  The picture depicts a scene in which . The scene is presented in an artistic and ironic manner. Crowds of people are crammed in . Further examination reveals that 。


  Apparently, the picture symbolizes that humans, with such a huge population, may one day suffer from the exhaustion of earth resources. Take for example. Given the fact that , we find that . To make it worse, 。

Now, her quick perspective-taking defused a volatile situation. So when we take someone's perspective, it allows us to be ambitious and assertive, but still be likable.

  If the conflict between population boom and shortage of resources is not properly controlled, we have every reason to hold a pessimistic perspective towards human’s future on Earth. Perhaps eventually we would face the situation suggested by the picture, that is, . Accordingly, I strongly recommend that the whole globe launch aggressive programs to address this fatal contradiction。

Here's another way to be assertive but still be likable, and that is to signal flexibility. Now, imagine you're a car salesperson, and you want to sell someone a car. You're going to more likely make the sale if you give them two options. Let's say option A: $24,000 for this car and a five-year warranty. Or option B: $23,000 and a three-year warranty. My research shows that when you give people a choice among options, it lowers their defenses, and they're more likely to accept your offer.


And this doesn't just work with salespeople; it works with parents. When my niece was four, she resisted getting dressed and rejected everything. But then my sister-in-law had a brilliant idea. What if I gave my daughter a choice? This shirt or that shirt? OK, that shirt. This pant or that pant? OK, that pant. And it worked brilliantly. She got dressed quickly and without resistance.

  This is a very interesting piece of cartoon, in thanks to . Hence, 。

When I've asked the question around the world when people feel comfortable speaking up, the number one answer is: "When I have social support in my audience; when I have allies." So we want to get allies on our side. How do we do that? Well, one of the ways is be a mama bear. When we advocate for others, we expand our range in our own eyes and the eyes of others, but we also earn strong allies.

  Though being a little exaggerating, the cartoon illuminates a serious fact that , and for that matter, . A recent report also supported this view by . On the contrary, we are sad to perceive that 。

Another way we can earn strong allies, especially in high places, is by asking other people for advice. When we ask others for advice, they like us because we flatter them, and we're expressing humility. And this really works to solve another double bind. And that's the self-promotion double bind. The self-promotion double bind is that if we don't advertise our accomplishments, no one notices. And if we do, we're not likable.

  Therefore, in my opinion, it is already high time for the whole world to form a solid cooperation fighting against , because not a single government or person can be exempt from its harm. A series of down-to-earth measures need to be urgently implemented to control 。

But if we ask for advice about one of our accomplishments, we are able to be competent in their eyes but also be likeable. And this is so powerful it even works when you see it coming. There have been multiple times in life when I have been forewarned that a low-power person has been given the advice to come ask me for advice. I want you to notice three things about this: First, I knew they were going to come ask me for advice. Two, I've actually done research on the strategic benefits of asking for advice. And three, it still worked! I took their perspective, I became more invested in their calls, I became more committed to them because they asked for advice.


Now, another time we feel more confident speaking up is when we have expertise. Expertise gives us credibility. When we have high power, we already have credibility. We only need good evidence. When we lack power, we don't have the credibility. We need excellent evidence.


And one of the ways we can come across as an expert is by tapping into our passion. I want everyone in the next few days to go up to friend of theirs and just say to them, "I want you to describe a passion of yours to me." I've had people do this all over the world and I asked them, "What did you notice about the other person when they described their passion?" And the answers are always the same. "Their eyes lit up and got big." "They smiled a big beaming smile." "They used their hands all over -- I had to duck because their hands were coming at me." "They talk quickly with a little higher pitch."



  As is shown in the picture above, . Obviously from we can surmise that 。

"They leaned in as if telling me a secret."

  It goes without saying that the primary purpose of the picture lies in eulogizing the practice of . As a matter of fact, it is not rare to find in our everyday life deeds of similar nature. For instance, . Additionally, we can also hear many stories about . Not to mention those moving cases of 。

And then I said to them, "What happened to you as you listened to their passion?"

  All in all, I firmly believe that a harmonious society is based on a . By , people not only harvest , but also gain that can never be purchased via money。

They said, "My eyes lit up. I smiled. I leaned in."


When we tap into our passion, we give ourselves the courage, in our own eyes, to speak up, but we also get the permission from others to speak up. Tapping into our passion even works when we come across as too weak. Both men and women get punished at work when they shed tears. But Lizzie Wolf has shown that when we frame our strong emotions as passion, the condemnation of our crying disappears for both men and women.

  As the old Chinese saying goes, . It echoes with this picture in which . The title of the picture further points out that 。

I want to end with a few words from my late father that he spoke at my twin brother's wedding. Here's a picture of us. My dad was a psychologist like me, but his real love and his real passion was cinema, like my brother. And so he wrote a speech for my brother's wedding about the roles we play in the human comedy.

  The picture is meant to . As far as I am concerned, I think . This universal truth can be particularly proved in the field of , where 。

And he said, "The lighter your touch, the better you become at improving and enriching your performance. Those who embrace their roles and work to improve their performance grow, change and expand the self. Play it well, and your days will be mostly joyful."

  A brief survey of history about also demonstrates the fundamental importance of . , for example, . The same principle applies to common people as well, and I am sure everybody can benefit from 。

What my dad was saying is that we've all been assigned ranges and roles in this world. But he was also saying the essence of this talk: those roles and ranges are constantly expanding and evolving.


So when a scene calls for it, be a ferocious mama bear and a humble advice seeker. Have excellent evidence and strong allies. Be a passionate perspective taker. And if you use those tools -- and each and every one of you can use these tools -- you will expand your range of acceptable behavior, and your days will be mostly joyful.


优德w88官网,Thank you.


  It is a very eye-catching photo in which . What makes this picture extraordinary is , which clearly indicates 。

  The sense of that permeates this picture is representative of , that is, , and therefore, . China, in particular, . The effect of such communication can be best exemplified by 。

  While people belong to nations, cultures know no boundary. is not only featured by , but more importantly, by . I firmly believe that is contributing, and will contribute more to the world’s peace, development, and prosperity. (参见范文1)


  As the title indicates, “ ”, the set of pictures apparently reminds us that . It is discern able that 。

  The drawing virtually reminds its audience a widespread phenomenon existing negatively in the area of basic education in China, that is, . That is to say, . Such a practice is very harmful in terms of the following aspects. Firstly, . Secondly, . Last but not the least, 。

  In my point of view, , but it is only part of the picture. On the other hand, . Therefore, it is an urgent task to . As children are the future of our nation, creating a good environment for their upbringing means creating a bright and promising future for our nation。


  The cartoon reveals a very thought-provoking scene. The artist purposefully exaggerates . This picture reveals the in-depth problem of 。

  In fact, . There are two reasons for this. The first and perhaps most important is that . The other reason is more serious from a practical point of view. . It owes to 。

  In my point of view, the trend goes quite against the genuine and original purpose of our . What I want to emphasize by the above analysis is that, . Therefore, I strongly contend that 。


  The two pictures illustrate vividly . In the left picture , while in the right 。

  From the two pictures we can sense a crazy tendency of . Aside from , another telling example is , which was so successful in that . The pictures also make it obvious that we should 。

  Admittedly, it is natural that . Nevertheless, it is the responsibility of our government and society to . In my opinion, what’s the more important is to . In short, 。



  According to the two pictures presented, it can be observed that. In the left picture, . A the same time, as the right one shows. Different people have different views on 。

  Some people support by claiming that . In their opinion, . In addition, . Meanwhile, there are some people, especially young men, who . Their reasons are quite different, sometimes for , sometimes for , sometimes simply for 。

  In my point of view, both sides are partly right. To thoroughly analyze this problem, we should take into consideration of all relevant aspects, so as to make the right decision. Therefore, my conclusion would be that 。