15 Study the following reportage carefully and write an essay in which you should:
A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is borne out clearly in census figures. For example thirty years ago in Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is more than one in three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45). A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997).
1. interpret the reportage;
Divorce: a love story
While the government talks up family values, marriage break-ups are
Jan 23rd 2016 | CHONGQING | From the print edition
soar: to rise swiftly
e.g. After news of the possible acquisition broke, Crumbs' stock soared 990% from 3 cents to almost 35 cents as of mid-morning trading. (Los Angeles Times Jul 10, 2014)
YANG YOURONG’s wife kicks him as they walk upstairs and he falls back a
few steps, then follows again at a distance up to the cramped
offices of a district-government bureau handling divorces in Chongqing,
a region in the south-east. After more than 20 years of marriage, Mr
Yang’s wife has had several affairs; she is “quick tempered”, he says
(she had slapped him earlier, he claims). At the bureau, divorce takes
half an hour and costs 9 yuan ($1.40). It is administered a few steps
away from where other couples get married and take celebratory
photographs. Mr Yang and his wife have second thoughts, however;
they return home, still arguing. Most couples hesitate less.
cramped: Restricted; narrowed.
e.g. Still, he was drawn to the cramped apartment where his birth mother, uncles and grandmother lived. (New York Times Dec 15, 2016)
have second thoughts: 改造主意；
e.g. The idea was preposterous and I determined not to give it a second thought.
Divorce rates are rising quickly across China. This is a remarkable
transformation in a society where for centuries marriage was universal
and mostly permanent (though convention permitted men to take
concubines). Under Communist rule, traditional values have
retained a strong influence over family relationships: during much
of the Mao era, divorce was very unusual. It became more common in the
1980s, but a marriage law adopted in 1994 still required a reference
from an employer or community leader. Not until 2003 were
concubines: a woman in the past who lived with and had sex with a man who already had a wife or wives, but who was socially less important than the wives
e.g. Were these the royal concubines, buried near the deceased emperor to serve him in the next world as they had in this life?(National Geographic Oct 12, 2016)
reference: A statement about a person's qualifications, character, and dependability.
e.g. We will need references from your former employers.
Not until: 直到……才……
e.g. Not until we pointed out their fault to them did they realize it.
The trend reflects profound economic and social change. In the past 35
years, the biggest internal migration experienced by any country in
human history has been tearing families apart. Traditional values
have been giving way to more liberal ones. Women are becoming better
educated, and more aware of their marital rights (they now initiate
over half of all divorce cases). Greater affluence has made it easier
for many people to contemplate living alone—no longer is there such
an incentive to stay married in order to pool resources.
tear apart: 撕裂；
e.g. The unpredictable ebbs and flows of the world economy often threatened to tear apart the integrity of small and weak states.
give way to: 让位于，被……替代
e.g. Those initial existential concerns have given way to a new debate over the “normalization” of Trump and Trumpism in the wake of his election.(The New Yorker Nov 29, 2016)
marital: Of or relating to marriage
e.g. “I can’t remember the last time I cared so much about the marital prospects of a fictional character,” A. O. Scott wrote in The Times.(New York Times Dec 22, 2016)
contemplate: to think about something that you might do in the future
e.g. The promoter of Michael Jackson's comeback concerts had contemplated a worldwide tour for the entertainer.
incentive: Something, such as the fear of punishment or the expectation of reward, that induces action or motivates effort.
e.g. And yet the system of incentives that drives academic advancement—grants, publications, and tenure decisions—rarely rewards openness.(The New Yorker Dec 26, 2016)
pool: to combine your money, ideas, skills etc with those of other people so that you can all use them
e.g. Tradition dictates that prize money is pooled and distributed among the team members.(Seattle Times Jul 11, 2014)
As long as both sides agree on terms, China is now among the easiest
and cheapest places in the world to get a divorce. In many Western
countries, including Britain, couples must separate for a period before
dissolving a marriage; China has no such constraints. In 2014, the
latest year for which such data exist, about 3.6m couples split up—more
than double the number a decade earlier (they received a red
certificate, pictured, to prove it). The divorce rate—the number of
cases per thousand people—also doubled in that period. It now stands at
2.7, well above the rate in most of Europe and approaching that of
America, the most divorce-prone Western country (see chart). Chongqing’s
rate, 4.4, is higher than America’s.
agree on terms: 达成壹致；
e.g. The two sides have been unable to agree on the terms of a power-sharing arrangement to break the political deadlock gripping the country since a disputed presidential election in late December.
Helped by the huge movement of people from the countryside into cities,
and the rapid spread of social media, the availability of potential
mates has grown with astonishing speed, both geographically and
virtually. But many migrants marry in their home villages and often live
apart from their spouses for lengthy periods. This has contributed
to a big increase in extramarital liaisons. Married people
previously had limited opportunities to meet members of the opposite sex
in social situations, according to research by Li Xiaomin of Henan
University. Peng Xiaobo, a divorce lawyer in Chongqing, reckons
60-70% of his clients have had affairs.
lengthy: continuing for a long time, often too long
e.g. Like many a lengthy novel, it might have worked better as a television series.(Seattle Times Jul 10, 2014)
liaison: a secret sexual relationship between a man and a woman, especially a man and a woman who are married but not to each other
e.g. They tell stories of love and heartbreak, illicit sexual liaisons, mental-health crises, political and religious conversions, financial anxieties and disappointed hopes.(Washington Post Jul 06, 2014)
reckon: to think or suppose something
e.g. The Gulf Centre for Human Rights, based in Beirut, reckons the region has become more hostile towards activists in the past year.(Economist Jul 10, 2014)
Such behaviour has led to much soul-searching. The notion that
“chopsticks come in pairs” is still prevalent; propaganda posters
preach Confucian-style family virtues using pictures of happy,
multi-generation families. (President Xi Jinping is on his second
marriage but this is rarely mentioned.) Many commentators in the
official media talk of separation as a sign of moral failure; they
fret that it signifies the decline of marriage, and of family as a
social unit—a threat, as they see it, to social stability and even a
cause of crime. The spread of “Western values” is often blamed.
propaganda: information which is false or which emphasizes just one part of a situation, used by a government or political group to make people agree with them
e.g. There was almost no independent media left in the country and the intensity of state propaganda rivaled even the Soviet days.(Time Dec 26, 2016)
fret: to worry about something, especially when there is no need
The Germans like rules and discipline, and fret about excessive debt and the moral hazard created by bail-outs.(Economist Dec 08, 2016)
But marriage is not losing its lustre. In most countries, rising
divorce rates coincide with more births out of wedlock and a
fall in marriage rates. China bucks both these trends. Remarriage is
common too. The Chinese have not fallen out of love with marriage—only
with each other.
lustre: the quality that makes something interesting or exciting
e.g. And indeed Chinese entrepreneurs are gradually becoming victims as their brands acquire lustre.(Economist Jun 20, 2016)
** coincide with**: 与……一致
e.g. He gave great encouragement to his students, especially if their passions happened to coincide with his own.
wedlock: the state of being married
e.g. No one could have predicted that something like 70 percent of black births would be out of wedlock.(Salon Nov 13, 2016)
buck: to oppose something in a direct way
e.g. Hidden Figures, both a dazzling piece of entertainment and a window into history, bucks the trend of the boring-math-guy movie.(Time Dec 23, 2016)
It is tradition itself that is partly to blame for rising divorce
rates. China’s legal marriage age for men, 22, is the highest in the
world. But conservative attitudes to premarital relationships result in
Chinese youths having fewer of them than their counterparts in the West
(they are urged to concentrate on their studies and careers, rather than
socialise or explore). Living together before marriage is still
rare, although that is changing among educated youngsters. People still
face social pressure to marry in their 20s. Their inexperience makes it
more than usually difficult for them to select a good partner.
socialize: to spend time with other people in a friendly way
e.g. It was — and I found this shocking because socializing is usually stressful for me — an exhale moment.(New York Times Dec 14, 2016)
Couples’ ageing relatives are part of the problem too. Yan Yunxiang of
the University of California, Los Angeles, says “parent-driven divorce”
is becoming more common. As a result of China’s one-child-per-couple
policy (recently changed to a two-child one), many people have no
siblings to share the burden of looking after parents and grandparents.
Thus couples often find themselves living with, or being watched
over by, several—often contending—elders. Mr Yan says the older ones’
interference fuels conjugal conflict. Sometimes parents urge their
children to divorce their partners as a way to deal with rifts.
watched over: 监督；
e.g.These websites offer young people the information and tools they need to watch over their money.
conjugal: relating to marriage
e.g. Many of these communities sought to regulate conjugal relations.(The New Yorker Sep 26, 2016)
rift: a situation in which two people or groups have had a serious disagreement and begun to dislike and not trust each other
e.g. The most bruising presidential election in modern history lifted the curtain on the nation’s deep family rift — just in time for Thanksgiving and Christmas.(Seattle Times Dec 23, 2016)
Women are more likely to be the ones who suffer financially when this
happens. Rising divorce rates reflect the spread of more tolerant,
permissive values towards women, but legislation tends to favour men in
divorce settlements. A legal interpretation issued in 2003 says that
if a divorce is disputed, property bought for one partner by a spouse’s
parents before marriage can revert to the partner alone. That
usually means the husband’s family: they often try to increase their
child’s ability to attract a mate by buying him a home.
issue: to officially make a statement, give an order, warning etc
e.g. Bhatia, who acts both in Bollywood films and regional Tamil cinema, immediately issued a public statement and demanded an apology from the director.(BBC Dec 27, 2016)
revert to: if land or a building reverts to its former owner, it becomes their property again
e.g. Of course, if it does go bankrupt, the project itself will revert back to the state. (Washington Post Nov 28, 2016)
In 2011 the Supreme Court went further. It ruled that in contested
cases (as about one-fifth of divorces are), the property would be
considered that of one partner alone if that partner’s parents had
bought it for him or her after the couple had got married. In addition,
if one partner (rather than his or her parents) had bought a home before
the couple wed, that person could be awarded sole ownership by a divorce
court. This ruling has put women at a disadvantage too: by
convention they are less often ** named on deeds**.
contest: to formally oppose a decision or statement because you think it is wrong
e.g. However, some experts contested Ozerov’s claim, saying the crew’s failure to report a malfunction pointed at a possible terror attack.(Time Dec 25, 2016)
put ... at a disadvantage:使……处于不利；
e.g. A lack of regional cohesion will put the area at an economic disadvantage to the more dynamic markets of East Asia.
deed: a legal document that you sign, especially one that proves that you own a house or a building
e.g. Those rolls contained images of Dakota County’s mortgage documents and land deeds dating back to the 1850s.(Washington Times Dec 17, 2016)
In practice, if the couple has children the person with custody
often keeps the home—more often the mother. Yet the court’s
interpretation sets a worrying precedent for divorced women. Their
difficulties may be compounded by the two-child policy, which came
into effect on January 1st. If couples have two children and both
partners want custody, judges often assign parents one child each.
Marriage and the family are still strong in China—but children clearly
lie in a different asset class.
in practice: 实际上；
e.g. This is certainly a theoretical risk but in practice there is seldom a problem.
custody: the right to take care of a child, given to one of their parents when they have divorced
e.g. The inmates often lose connections to the outside world, including custody of children.(Washington Times Dec 26, 2016)
compound: to make a difficult situation worse by adding more problems
e.g. Lack of sleep likely compounded her health problems.(Washington Times Dec 24, 2016)
come into effect: 生效；
e.g. This is certainly a theoretical risk but in practice there is seldom a problem.
asset: a thing of value, especially property, that a person or company owns, which can be used or sold to pay debts
e.g. The deal included the possibility of adjustments to the purchase price depending on the evaluation of the assets.(Wall Street Journal Dec 27, 2016)
From the print edition: China
An important issue for sociologists, and indeed for all of society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for the 'divorce phenomenon' and also consider the social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework.
2. point out the reasons for the problem；
One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage. For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with 'access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems' (p.301). Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in the legal system. The problem with this type of explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place. It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of more fundamental changes in society.
3. suggest possible ways to solve the problem.
Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the family. One example of these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and economic providers. According to Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. It would appear that Hart's explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in families where only the husband is working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change.
You should write 160~200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.
本报记者电视发表自20世纪70年间末以来，中夏族民共和国的离婚率持续上升。离婚水平已超过邻国扶桑和南朝鲜，与新加坡共和国同属亚洲离婚率较高的国度。这是近日中国社会科高校人口学专家唐灿发布的应用切磋报告中建议的。那份报告还写到，据200三年中津市总计年鉴发表的多寡，二零零二年东京市的离婚总的数量为3875陆对，当年户籍总人口为1136.10000，粗离婚率达到6.82‰；当年的结婚对数为7613陆对，因而计算离结率高达50.十分之九。也正是说，那年平均不到两对夫妻结婚就有1部分夫妇离婚，法国巴黎市的离婚率已经济体改为举国上下最高。那是一道相当独特的主题材料，是就壹段中文的音信广播发表命题，提纲却是守旧的格局。那类标题出现的比值非常的小，大家在本书中穿插了分别那样的主题材料主假若为了拓展大家的视界，而且那类题目所涉嫌的主题也是可怜关键的，很有异常的大恐怕以图画题或图表题等主流方式考察到。MATucsonCHing to the above news report, the divorce rate in China keeps increasing since 一九六九s, and now is higher than that in Japan and Korea. It was also reported that the ratio of divorced couples to married couples reached 一 to 2 in 二零零三 in Beijing.
From my point of view, the problem of high divorce rate in our country can be analyzed from three perspectives. To begin with, owing to economic development and womens liberation, the traditional family mode has changed greatly. Now in most cases the two parties of a marriage are psychologically and economically independent. Second, because of the higher living standard and onechild policy, many young people have shaped a selfcentered personality, which is liable to result in lack of mutual care and understanding. Third, when all the social members become more and more openminded, people are less restricted to the traditional conception of marriage. Third parties, extramarital love and online marriage all pose great threats to the legal marriage.
As we all know, healthy marriages are beneficial not only to the couples themselves, but also to the growth of the children and to the stability of the whole society. Therefore, it is worthwhile to make efforts to reduce the divorce rate. Before they get married, young couples should be emotionally and psychologically well prepared for all possible conditions and changes in marriage. Furthermore, school and family education should help enhance the sense of responsibility, which is not only the key to a healthy marriage but also to a successful career.作品共分3段。第1段是将音讯报导中最要害的音讯提炼出来，那是看大家的基本功是还是不是扎实。第一段给出了这一场合包车型大巴开始和结果。第1段是焚薮而田难点的点子。
次段首句的perspective意思是“角度”。第陆句的onechild policy表示计生的“独生子女政策”，selfcentered personality表示“以自己为主干的特性”，mutual care and understanding代表“互相关怀和驾驭”。第六句中的openminded表示“思想开明的”。第四句中的pose great threats to表示“对……构成主要恫吓”。
第三段中的enhance the sense of responsibility表示“加强义务感”。
更多音信请访问：腾讯网报考学士频道 报考硕士论坛 报考学士博客圈